Avocadofurans are new nontoxic insecticides which would be effective against common crop insect pest.


A new synthetic route for the preparation of the insecticidal compound 2-hexadecylfuran is described in this study. The procedure starts from readily available furfuraldehyde and palmitic anhydride via two steps employing the Perkin reaction and resulting in a 25% overall yield. The method can be deemed as a practical and environmentally friendly route to prepare a potentially important class of insecticide.

A practical and environmentally friendly route to prepare a potentially important class of insecticide.

A two-step synthesis of the insect anti-feedant 2-hexadecylfuran (1) was accomplished starting from inexpensive furfuraldehyde (2)19–21 in 25% overall yield. Although the yield is low, the starting materials are inexpensive and are obtained from domestic agricultural sources.

This is how I prefer my avocados!

Avocado is Incredibly Nutritious. ...

They Contain More Potassium Than Bananas. ...

Avocado is Loaded With Heart-Healthy Monounsaturated Fatty Acids. ...

Avocados Are Loaded With Fiber. ...

Eating Avocados Can Lower Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels.

Fortunately, avocadofuran is synthesised from FURFURAL and so we can continue to enjoy the culinary benefits of avocados.  



The avocadofurans are a family of natural products isolated from avocado (Persia) which consist of 2-alkylfurans with varying degrees and sites of unsaturation (double and triple bonds) in the alkyl chain. It has been demonstrated that compounds structurally related to avocadofurans, saturated 2-alkylfurans with chain length of 14–18 carbon atoms, have inhibitory activity against larval growth of the agricultural insect beet army worm (Spodoptera exigua) and, therefore, such compounds could be useful insecticides in crop protection. 


 A new synthesis route for the preparation of the avocadofuran, 25.09.2016


  • Furfural
  • Insecticides...


Furfural imparts a characteristic variously described as grainy, biscuity, or almond-like.

Nosing whiskey isn’t just an art, but a science [1]

While it’s probably true that many self-proclaimed experts are really hacks who’ve learned a lot of fancy vocabulary, nosing isn’t just an art, but a science.

DalinYebo's insight:

We have previously written [2] about the flavour that furfural gives to wine, cider, coffee, etc. Besides giving flavour to whiskey, the ratio of furfural to 5-HMF can be used to determine whether a whiskey [3] was aged in a cask or not. Oak wood has up to 30% hemicellulose content, which over a period of time contributes to an increasing level of furfural in the whiskey.

Whiskey is very complex chemically, and when we detect certain notes in it, that’s because it contains certain molecules. If a whiskey has pear notes, that’s because it has in it a dash of the same chemical that makes pears smell like pear. Although the range of fragrant compounds that can occur in whiskey is large, some of the more prevalent compounds can be broken down into a few groups:

Esters are a group of compounds mostly created during fermentation when fatty acids and alcohols produced by yeast combine with each other. Interactions between alcohols and fatty acids of different kinds lead to the creation of many different kinds of esters, each of which has a distinct aroma. For the most part, esters, especially short- and medium-chain esters, which are the most abundant, impart fruity notes. Long-chain esters, though, have a wider range, including cheesy and soapy aromas. A sub-group of esters are lactones, one of which is commonly called whiskey lactone. It has a coconut or wood aroma and comes from the oak whiskey is aged in.

Phenols, including phenol, guaiacol, and cresol, impart a range of smoky, rubbery, and medicinal flavours to whiskey. If that sounds like a description of a big Highland scotch, that’s because the major source of phenols is peat smoke. In nature, cresols are also found in human sweat and beaver castor glands!

Aldehydes are the source of a wide range of flavours, including furfural, which imparts a characteristic variously described as grainy, biscuity, or almond-like; and vanillin and cinnamaldehyde, which I’ll let you make your own assumptions about. Some of these compounds are produced during fermentation and distillation, while others are imparted during aging. Researchers have found that the presence of furfural, which, in whiskey, comes from charred oak, can be used to tell a straight whiskey apart from a blended whiskey coloured with caramel. If you’re ever feeling sheepish at a group tasting because you don’t taste the same thing everyone else does, keep this in mind: just as different notes are physically present in whiskey, everyone’s nose is slightly different. Some people, including skilled professional tasters, simply lack receptors for certain compounds. In fact, it’s been suggested that virtually everyone on earth lacks sensitivity to at least one smell. While there is biological variation in nasal acuity between different people, what’s far more important in tasting is practice, repetition, and learning to trust your own senses.


[2] Furfural derivatives in apple cider and wine


[1WHISKEY SCIENCE: THE CHEMISTRY OF SMELL by Katelyn Best - February 17th, 2017

[3Authentication of straight whiskey by determination of the ratio of furfural to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde [1999]

  • Flavour
  • Furfural
  • Coffee
  • Wine...


All you need is a Cob and CO2 to make Plastic Bottles.

This article is an update to a previous article: "Plastic Bottles from Carbon Dioxide and a Furfural Derivative"

Most of the 270 billion plastic bottles used in the U.S. each year are derived from petroleum. And that manufacturing contributes to a global greenhouse gas hit of more than 200 million tons of carbon dioxide each year — the same amount about 150 coal power plants generate annually. Some plastics companies are attempting to cut that footprint by substituting corn-based sugar for petroleum. But planting, fertilizing and harvesting corn generates significant carbon emissions, too, says researcher Matt Kanan (Standford University), where they developed a process that turns furfural into a precursor to make plastic bottles:

1. Convert the corncobs into furfural

2. Make furoic acid (a common food additive) from the furfural.

3. Mix hot furoic acid with CO2 to make 2-5-Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA).

4. FCDA is a precursor for making polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is an attractive replacement for PET.

NB: Worldwide, about 50 million tons of PET are produced each year for items such as fabrics, electronics, recyclable beverage containers and personal-care products.

DalinYebo's Comment: Corncobs can be removed from the fields without any negative impact on soil health. Actually, they take a few years to decompose and initially take nitrogen from the soil during the decomposition process!


  • Biorenewable Chemicals
  • PEF
  • FDCA
  • Bioplastics
  • Furfural
  • Furoic Acid
  • PET
  • Corncobs...


Eco-friendly and affordable rocketfuel blends to replace currently used toxic fuels.

Indian researchers [1] investigated furfuryl alcohol ("FA", a furfural derivative) blends with ionic liquids ("ILs") as a basis for an eco-friendly rocket fuel. ILs are a suitable alternative to replace toxic rocket fuels like hydrazine, because they "fulfill most of the desirable properties such as negligible vapor pressure, low ignition delay, high energy density, low toxicity, stability over wide temperature range and it is also hydrolytically stable". The researchers also report enhancements of the hypergolic fuel properties by the "addition of nanomaterial."

We have previously reported on use of FA in hypergolic propellants like Furaline, the 1950s rocket fuel that was also used to booster rockets of the first interceptor jets or Fantol, the hypergolic starter fuel, which was already used for the German Enzian and Schmetterling missiles[2] towards the end of the 2nd World War.


only for our client users (click here):

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[1] Energy and Environmental Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Pune, 411025, India.DOI: 10.1002/slct.201600358

  • Furfural
  • Biofuels
  • Rocketfuels
  • Jetfuels...


Furfural is one of the oldest chemicals made from biomass. It has been commercially made since 1922 and is today recognised as one of the most import biobased chemical building blocks

During a presentation of a feasibility study on the Integration of Furfural Production into a Sugar Mill, a client recently conclude that ..

"it's really not rocket science!"

Their mill also produces ethanol, co-generates electricity and they are now looking at processing trash/leaves, as green cane harvesting is being introduced. The technology risk is low, but the bottom-line impact is high, when integrating furfural production to beneficiate residues from processing crops such as:




Sunflower Seeds,



Sweet Sorghum,

Sugarcane or

Forest residues

Generally, we have found that an investment in the addition of furfural production has returns (IRR) of over 25% and the payback period is below 4 years.

"Why are there not many more furfural producers?"

There are several answers to this question and DalinYebo would look forward to an opportunity to share them with your organisation. In the mean time, we take the liberty to direct you via the links below to some background information on this topic.

Benefit from the growing demand for biobased chemicals.
Viability Study: 13,500 tpa furfural & 2.2 MW electricity
Creating Wealth from Crop Residues
Fast, low-risk and low-cost bio-refining of bagasse and trash.
Upto 10 x higher margins, compared to Ethanol from hemicelluloses.
Furfural is a B2B trade, with attractive niche clients who offer longterm off-take agreements.

Of Interest? Provide us with some information about your current or planned operation (For the response form, please This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) and we'll get back to you with a concept plan on how 'furfural' would benefit your business.


Adding Value to Biomass

DalinYebo, which means "Wealth Creation" (Xhosa) was founded in 2001 to trade and develop new furfural production with the support of International Furan Technology (Pty) Ltd (a wholly owned DalinYebo subsidiary). Our collective knowhow enables us to provide complete technology & business solutions for the manufacture of furfural:

For owners of biomass we offer technology and market access, creating investment opportunities in the cleantech space. Contact us to discuss the potential your biomass has for the production of furfural.

For the agri (Biomass) processing, sugar, pulp & paper, etc. industries, we provide knowhow and technology to convert (residual) biomass to chemicals and energy.

Bagasse, Corncobs, Sunflower Husks and more ..


  • Furfural
  • Biomass
  • Biorefineries
  • Biorenewable Chemicals...


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