The furfural molecule has a very high oxygen content. In addition, its derivatives are known to change the phase diagram of (e.g. diesel), so that mineral diesel can be blended e.g. with alcohols without forming emulsions. Already in earlier work and field trials, such additives have successfully reduced diesel emissions or suppressed e.g. the vapour pressure so ethanol-gasoline mixtures did not separate! The attached patent falls into this category of chemistry.
Extract from US Patent #8,372,165
A diesel fuel blending component primarily comprised of 1,2-(ditetrahydrofuryl)ethane (DTHFE) along with a method of manufacture is presented. The blending component will reduce PM and other emissions in a diesel engine. The component is manufactured from C5 sugar sources by first converting to furfural, then furion, and then hydrotreated to the desired product.
Diesel: For diesel fuels for compression ignition engines, in one embodiment, the DTHFE is used as an additive to improve cetane and cold flow properties of petroleum diesel or biodiesel (FAME) blends. Percentages considered additive blend levels of DTHFE are 0.1% to 5%. Blends in this range would also reduce exhaust particulates. In another embodiment, blends from 5% to 80% would add additional renewable content to the fuel and maintain the advantages of the additive blend levels. Most probably 10% to 30% blends would be used.
Kerosene: DTHFE blends with petroleum kerosene would provide renewable content to jet fuels without compromising freeze point and smoke point and other critical specifications. Blend ranges could be from 5% to 80%.