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Flying to the Mars on Corncobs?

Furfural, the pre-cursor to furfuryl alcohol (FA), is made from agricultural residues. The majority of furfural is made from corncobs. See "Corncobs=Rocket-Power!" (Furfural: Science Behind Rockets)

Furfuryl alcohol was one of components used in hypergolic propellants which are fuels that ignite spontaneously. They also ignite in the absence of oxygen (i.e. in space). These mixtures have been (and can be) used as hypergolic starter fluids to ignite liquid rocket fuels in space .. e.g. when flying to the Mars!

Then: Rocket Fuel

The WAC or WAC Corporal was the first sounding rocket developed by the USA [1]. The main engine, hypergolic aniline+furfuryl alcohol. The Wac Corporal became the first U.S. rocket to reach space [2].

Then: Starter Fluid

The Nike Ajax was the first in the US army's family of guided missiles, and the world's first operational, guided, surface-to-air missile system[3]. It used furfuryl alcohol mixture as a hypergolic starter fluid and a 50-50 kerosene:gasoline aviation fuel.

Now:

Amateur rocketry groups across the world are experimenting with FA/white fuming nitric acid (WFNA) propulsion engines. E.g.: Copenhagen Suborbitals' Spectra, a concept liquid rocket engine, uses WFNA as the oxidizer to furfuryl alcohol fuel [4]. The clip below gives a great overview and insight on the choices of rocket propellants and in particular how the FA/WFNA system works.

NB: In the above clip there's a reference made to the first moon lander's navigation/propulsion system: Our mentor, Dr. Karl Zeitsch, was a member of the team that develop the fuel for the RD4 thrusters that were used on the Apollo command and the lunar modules!

Download from DalinYebo.com .

References:

[1] Wikipedia

[2] jcrocket.com

[3] nikemissile.org

 [4] ing.dk/blog/spectra-testen

  • Furfuryl Alcohol
  • Furfural
  • Furfural and its many Byproducts
  • Biofuels
  • Rocketfuels
  • Jetfuels...
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Biomass derived Lycra®?

PTMEG (Poly Tetra Methylene Ether Glycol) or polytetrahydrofuran is a polymer, which is used for the manufacture of (1) Spandex fibre (e.g. Lycra® - Invista) and (2) polyurethanes . Although it is currently made from crude-oil derived chemicals, the synthesis of its green equivalent starts with furfural furan  THF PTMEG.

Major PTMEG Uses

1 Spandex is a synthetic fiber (polyurethane-polyurea copolymer) known for its exceptional elasticity. It is strong, but less durable than its major non-synthetic competitor, natural latex [1]. The largest consumers of spandex is China, which has in excess of 500,000 tpa production capacity. For years the annual growth rate has been between 2% and 5.5% and spandex trades in the order of US$900/t - US$1,000/t.

2 Polyurethanes: PTMEG is a polyol in formulations for rigid and flexible polyurethanes, which go into industries, such as automotive, packaging and furniture. They are used e.g. as foams, coatings, adhesives, sealant etc. There is a growing demand for green polyols. Some of them are made e.g. from maize or soya. Global markets [2] for green or bio-polyols are predicted to exceed 1 million tpa by 2018 at an estimated market worth of US$3bn.

Converting furfural into polyurethanes (and other polymers) is an effective form of carbon sequestration!

Commercial furfural production started in 1922 and many of the fundamental research work was already done in the 1940-1950s, when the crude-oil based hydrocarbon revolutions almost "killed" the furfural industry. Little R&D has since been undertaken and that is why furfural is the Sleeping Beauty of all the bio-renewable chemicals, bioplastics and polymers. One day [3], instead from crude-oil, skin-hugging outfits, swimwear, etc. will be made from clean, green and biorenewable furfural.

References:

[1] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spandex

[2] finance.yahoo.com

[3] "Prince" required 

Also see:

Top 30 bio-renewable chemicals.

Green chemical building block.

By-Products

Since 2001, DalinYebo provides knowhow:

To convert biomass to value added chemical products and applications that are used in industries such as steel, wood, pharmaceutical, automotive, agricultural chemicals, industrial chemicals, etc.

For the agri (biomass) processing, sugar, pulp&paper, etc. industries, we provide knowhow and technology to convert (residual) biomass to chemicals and energy.

For owners of biomass we offer technology and market access, creating investment opportunities in the cleantech space.

The essential technical challenge facing us, and the world in general, is the complete beneficiation of cellulosic material. We strive to provide viable and practical solution. Contact us to discuss the economic potential of your biomass.
  • Furfural
  • Corncobs
  • Bioplastics
  • Biorenewable Chemicals
  • Biomass...
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The older the books the more they smell of furfural

Furfural (almond flavour [1]) is one of the many chemicals that contributes to the aroma of books.

The odour of books is a result of a complex mix of volatile chemicals produced by chemicals used in their manufacture, as well as the gradual degradation of the chemicals within the paper. Furfural is one of them. Of course, older books contain a higher amount of hemicelluloses, which would be the source of furfural.

Therefore, it can be used to determine the age and composition of books, with..

..books published after the mid-1800s emitting more furfural, ..

..and its emission generally increasing with publication year relative to older books composed of cotton or linen paper[2].

References:

[1] The expert panel of FEMA (Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association) assessed Furfural as GRAS (generally recognised as safe). See DOWNLOADS.

[2] www.businessinsider.com

Downloads:

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Also see:

Roasted Coffee Smell

Furfural Derivatives in Apple Cider and Wine

Furfural

  • Furfural
  • Flavour
  • Books...
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Furfural for formaldehyde-free wood glues!

Furfural is an efficient lignin-crosslinking agent and the following research demonstrates how it can replace formaldehyde in wood glues.

Abstract[1]:

Hot water extraction (HWE) of sugar maple dissolves ~15% of lignin in the extract which is subsequently subjected to acid hydrolysis. In this study, lignin will be separated from the extracts of HWE before and after acid hydrolysis and its potential to produce formaldehyde-free lignin-based adhesives will be evaluated.

Extracts are ultrafiltrated to remove low-molecular-weight compounds in permeate. The retentate (Insol fraction) contains a mixture of lignin and carbohydrates (mainly xylose-originated). Depending on the conditions of HWE, acid hydrolysis, and ultrafiltration, the Insol fraction varies in lignin-to-carbohydrate (L/C) ratio.

Acid hydrolysis and dehydration of xylose-based carbohydrates in the Insol fraction produce furfural, an efficient lignin-crosslinking agent. Furfural may be added to the Insol fraction in case of low xylose content (i.e. high L/C ratio). The resulting lignin-furfural product is analyzed for the condensation level and thermal properties by spectral methods (FTIR and NMR) and DSC to assess its potential as an adhesive.

Download:

{phocadownload view=file|id=55}

Reference:

[1] 245th ACS National Meeting and Exposition April 7-11, 2013, New Orleans, Louisiana

Also see:

Eco-friendly High Quality Resins (Wood Glues)

Furfuryl Alcohol: Turing Softwood into Hardwood

Furfural and the Rainforest

New Green Materials

  • Furfural
  • Wood
  • Resins...
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A highly durable & sustainable wood

'Kebonisation' is a wood modification process based on furfuryl alcohol, which results in a wood that is highly durable, sustainable with the aesthetics and performance of the best tropical hardwood.

Kebonisation is available with different finishes for different applications. Kebony wood can be used outdoors (e.g. cladding, roofing, windows, decking etc.) or indoors (e.g. flooring, furniture, surfaces, etc.).

Example:

"Kebony Maple For Your Table":

More Examples:

The images below are linked to their Pinterest boards:

Also see:

Furfuryl Alcohol: Turing Softwood into Hardwood

Furfural and the Rainforest

Eco-friendly High Quality Resins (Wood Glues)

Wood

Since 2001, DalinYebo provides knowhow:

To convert biomass to value added chemical products and applications that are used in industries such as steel, wood, pharmaceutical, automotive, agricultural chemicals, industrial chemicals, etc.

For the agri (biomass) processing, sugar, pulp&paper, etc. industries, we provide knowhow and technology to convert (residual) biomass to chemicals and energy.

For owners of biomass we offer technology and market access, creating investment opportunities in the cleantech space.

The essential technical challenge facing us, and the world in general, is the complete beneficiation of cellulosic material. We strive to provide viable and practical solution. Contact us to discuss the economic potential of your biomass.
  • Furfuryl Alcohol
  • Furfural and its many Byproducts
  • Wood...
Read more ...
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