Derived from Furfural and Brown Algae

A visible light-curable polysaccharide conjugate was prepared and was included with epidermal growth factor (EGF) for wound healing application[1]. Alginate was modified with furfurylamine, and the furfuryl alginate (F-alginate) was mixed with Rose Bengal for visible light reactivity.

Furfurylamine is synthesized from furfural

Alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae.

In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the system was useful for wound healing.


[1] Journal of Applied Polymer Science

  • bioengineering
  • Furfural
  • algea
  • pharmaceutical...
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Important chemicals for the production of biomass-based monomers

Furfural, which is made form biomass, was used to showcase the synthesis[1] of alternatives to petro-chemical derived polymers (polyesters). These products are identical to their petro-chemical equivalents and can be use to as drop-in substitute to manufacture bio-renewable plastics.

The above tag-cloud represents an analysis of the reference article's abstract.

Also see:

New Green Materials

Bioplastics and Furfural

Furfural and its many By-product


[1] Synthesis of Biomass-Based Monomers from Biomass-Based Furfural for Polyesters and Evaluation of Their Biomass Carbon Ratios

  • Furfural
  • Furfural and its many Byproducts
  • Bioplastics
  • Biorenewable Chemicals
  • polyesters...
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It may be a challenge to imagine corncobs powering rockets and it may be even more difficult to believe: This happened already in the 1940s!

Corncobs used to be the feedstock of preference to make furfural in the USA and France. Furfural is the platform chemical from which furfuryl alcohol (FA) is made. Furaline, a mixture of FA (41%), methanol (18%), and xylidine (dimethyl aniline; 41%) is a rocket fuel. The system is "hypergolic": When the furaline comes into contact with the nitric acid, it ignites by itself without external aid[1]. In the early 1940s, the German rocket designers used a hypergolic system of FA ("Fantol") and nitric acid to ignite their gasoline propelled Enzian and Schmetterling missiles[2].

image In 1947, the first furaline liquid propellant rocket engine (LPRE) was unveiled for an anti-aircraft missile[3]. Already in 1952 the first manned flight with a furaline rocket-boosted aircraft took place in France[4]. On the 9 September 1954, the first rocket propelled flight of the SO-9000 Trident was undertaken by SANSCO (now part of EADS) . The Trident was a prototype interceptor and could achieve a top speed of Mach 1.63. After completion of the test programme, the aircraft was retired to the Musée de l'air et de l'espace at Le Bourget Airport (Paris, France) . Trident development program was replaced by the development of the Mirage III, which used a different LPRE fuel. Furaline continued to fuel Russian, American and French missiles and rockets.

In 2013, FA continues to be part of hypergolic rocket propulsion systems[5] or rocketry[6].

Furaline was used by: - VERONIQUE rocket (France) - EMERAUDE rocket (France) - CORPORAL rockets (USA)

" ... it is only a lack of research which prevents furfural and its derivatives from flooding the world in a stunning variety of different applications.


[1] The chemistry and technology of furfural and its many by-products, Dr. Karl Joachim Zeitsch

[2] and

[3] Goolge Books: History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines, George Paul Sutton

[4] Google Books: Rocketing Into the Future: The History and Technology of Rocket Planes, Michel van Pelt

[5] 3-Nov-2013, :

[6] 3-Nov-2013, Spectra: and

  • Furfural
  • furaline
  • fuel
  • Biofuels
  • Rocketfuels
  • Jetfuels...
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Its about kinetics and the control valve.

image In our "Applied Knowhow" article, we describe the background and outline why we offer the most economical and fit-for-purpose biomass-processing technologies to make furfural.

Specifically, we provide



Which includes

Access to Market

With our CLIENTS, we share our understanding of ...

... the furfural market (Not import statistics, but who is buying, where and who from).

... how the furfural market price is determined.

... market trends (downstream uses: traditional and new).

  • knowhow
  • markets
  • Technology
  • Furfural...
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A complimentary alternative to the current gatekeepers

We have come a long way (13 years), since our mentor, Dr. K.J. Zeitsch, in the epilogue to his book stated:

.. the furfural industry has been traditionally secretive to the point of appearing shrouded in clouds of mystery .. clandestineness .. totally erroneous information. The surreptitious atmosphere has not been conducive to progress as evidenced by the fact that the very first industrial furfural process, launched 90 years ago with old equipment of a defunct cereal plant, is still used today although its yield is poor, without necessarily being so. ..

From the outside, perhaps not much has changed?

The Main Players May Still Know Each Other Reasonably Well, but ..

The furfural market is still a 'business to business' (B2B) trade where all the main players know each other reasonably well. However, it has seen growth and as a result we also see more effort in the development of furfural-downstream application[1], which will continue to grow the demand for furfural. These trends are further stimulated by the demand for "green chemicals & plastics".

Because these 'gatekeepers' have succeeded in keeping the market to themselves, i.e. very little information is made public, outsiders, especially large-scale agro-industries (e.g. Brazilian sugar industry or US cellulosic developers), struggle to understand or just don't see the attraction of the furfural business.

The markets are growing and there is room for additional production, especially outside China: There is a current market gap of ±30,000 tpa.

There Is An Absence Of (New) Technology?

Other than the work DalinYebo has undertaken over the last 12-years, no new technology has been commercialised. On the one-hand we believe that this has mainly got to do with the relatively small market size, which is not attractive for technology vendors. On the other-hand, we know that this 1920s process is fundamentally still the best technology to produce furfural. Our improvements make it more energy efficient, produce less waste water, especially if integrated with e.g. a sugar mill. Furfural production is "Not Rocket Science"!

Lack Of Understanding The Chinese Furfural Business

There is in particular a lack of or a stereotype understanding of the Chinese furfural business[3]. In our opinion, the cost of furfural production in China has not only exceeded the manufacturing costs that caused the loss of ±100,000 tpa of furfural production in the USA and (former) USSR in the 1990s. Now the Chinese furfural producers are actually facing similar challenges, as the industry did in the 1990s e.g. in the USA. In addition, weather conditions or alternate uses of their feedstock cause huge swings in the furfural prices, which jeopardise the use of furfural as a chemical building block of first choice for a variety of applications and in many different industries.

The Master Key

DalinYebo has developed the 'master key' in that we are not only able to assist with technology[4], but in that we have a thorough understanding of the furfural business and, in addition, maintain good relationships with all the major furfural 'players'. Our independence seems to attract regular interest from corporations that wish to discuss and/or seek to purchase (large) volume of furfural in their quest to roll-out bio-renewable chemicals or applications based on furfural. Therefore, besides the immediate market gap, there is a growing demand that needs new (preferably large scale) furfural production. DalinYebo offers our assistance and services to organisations who own biomass feedstock or investors who wish to join this renaissance of manufacturing a bio-renewable chemical that was first commercially produced in 1922. It's a sleeping beauty that needs to be woken-up.


[1] See "Sustainable Strategies" download as well as "Map to Furfural and its many By-products" .  

[2] Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass (p.12 ) .

[3] For our clients, we provided more insights on "How The Furfural Pricing Works In China" .

[4] Beyond Technology: Viable and practical solution for a Furfural Business .

  • Furfural and its many Byproducts
  • Technology
  • Furfural Markets
  • Furfural...
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