The versatility of furfuryl alcohols and furanoxonium ions in synthesis

“Substituted furfuryl alcohols are extraordinarily versatile starting materials in synthesis. They are precursors to furanoxonium ion intermediates which are implicated in the Piancatelli reaction (leading to 2-cyclopentenones) and in the synthesis of novel dihydrofuran-based exo enol ether/cyclic ketal natural products.”…


Also see


The older the books the more they smell of furfural

Furfural (almond flavour [1]) is one of the many chemicals that contributes to the aroma of books.

The odour of books is a result of a complex mix of volatile chemicals produced by chemicals used in their manufacture, as well as the gradual degradation of the chemicals within the paper. Furfural is one of them. Of course, older books contain a higher amount of hemicelluloses, which would be the source of furfural.

Therefore, it can be used to determine the age and composition of books, with..

..books published after the mid-1800s emitting more furfural, ..

..and its emission generally increasing with publication year relative to older books composed of cotton or linen paper[2].


[1] The expert panel of FEMA (Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association) assessed Furfural as GRAS (generally recognised as safe). See DOWNLOADS.



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Also see:

Roasted Coffee Smell

Furfural Derivatives in Apple Cider and Wine


  • Furfural
  • Flavour
  • Books...
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Furfural for formaldehyde-free wood glues!

Furfural is an efficient lignin-crosslinking agent and the following research demonstrates how it can replace formaldehyde in wood glues.


Hot water extraction (HWE) of sugar maple dissolves ~15% of lignin in the extract which is subsequently subjected to acid hydrolysis. In this study, lignin will be separated from the extracts of HWE before and after acid hydrolysis and its potential to produce formaldehyde-free lignin-based adhesives will be evaluated.

Extracts are ultrafiltrated to remove low-molecular-weight compounds in permeate. The retentate (Insol fraction) contains a mixture of lignin and carbohydrates (mainly xylose-originated). Depending on the conditions of HWE, acid hydrolysis, and ultrafiltration, the Insol fraction varies in lignin-to-carbohydrate (L/C) ratio.

Acid hydrolysis and dehydration of xylose-based carbohydrates in the Insol fraction produce furfural, an efficient lignin-crosslinking agent. Furfural may be added to the Insol fraction in case of low xylose content (i.e. high L/C ratio). The resulting lignin-furfural product is analyzed for the condensation level and thermal properties by spectral methods (FTIR and NMR) and DSC to assess its potential as an adhesive.


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[1] 245th ACS National Meeting and Exposition April 7-11, 2013, New Orleans, Louisiana

Also see:

Eco-friendly High Quality Resins (Wood Glues)

Furfuryl Alcohol: Turing Softwood into Hardwood

Furfural and the Rainforest

New Green Materials

  • Furfural
  • Wood
  • Resins...
Read more ...

CO2-based chemicals business case

The potential to use greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for producing new materials is a hot topic currently and could help to develop a true circular economy. …

DalinYebo‘s insight:

Direct production of chemicals through the transformation of CO2: Great ideas!

See on, via See on Scoop.itBiorenewable Chemicals & Plastics...


Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions of Furan and Furfural (liquid transportation fuels)

Abstract: Upgrading of furan and small oxygenates obtained from the decomposition of cellulosic materials via formation of carbon-carbon bonds is critical to effective conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels. Simulation-driven molecular level understanding of carbon-carbon bond formation is required to design efficient catalysts and processes. Accurate quantum chemical methods are utilized here to predict the reaction energetics for conversion of furan (C4H4O) to C5-C8 ethers and the transformation of furfural (C5H6O2) to C13-C26 alkanes. …

DalinYebo‘s insight:

Hydrolysis meets Pyrolysis!


Interesting Furan Chemistry: Vapour phase catalysis for upgrading of furans/furfurals to longer chain hydrocarbons. (also see

See on, via  Scoop.itFurfural and its many By-products...


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